Terpenes are plant chemicals made in the trichomes, specifically in cannabis. They serve the plant primarily as a means of communication and as a weapon against diseases and predators, but also as a lure for beneficial insects.
The perfume of nature
The plant world forms a wide variety of terpenoids, depending on the plant species and use. The potency of these chemicals lies in their smell, as terpenes are nature’s perfume. Cannabis has this intense and unmistakable smell due to the various terpenoids alone because the cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, are odorless. But also, the conifers, lemons, lavender, chili, etc. owe their special smell to the specially formed terpenes.
The natural defenses
A bitter smell is said to keep certain insects away and thus protect the plant from them and the damage they can cause. Additionally, the terpenes are sticky and can trap insects before they do too much damage. Sweet smells, on the other hand, attract beneficial insects such as bees and butterflies, which then ensure that the plant reproduces and is maintained. Terpenes also protect plants from bacterial and fungicidal infections.
The terpenes are therefore indispensable for the plants, but they also have other (medicinal) advantages for humans in addition to the smell. They ensure the effective spectrum of the cannabis plant. Medicinal cannabis is therefore assigned to a disease based on its terpene profile, among other things. Because if you take two cannabis strains with the exact same cannabinoid profile, they can have different healing properties due to their terpene composition.
The terpenes in the cannabis plant
We can smell the cannabis plant because the terpenes it produces are volatile and odorous. They are released from the trichomes and airborne through our noses into the brain, where they trigger nerve signals and are registered as an odorant compound. This is how we make connections to plants and fruits and store them in our brain as good or bad (sweet, bitter, or poisonous smells are stored).
The effect in the human body
The cannabis plant produces over 200 different terpenes, which together with the other cannabinoids and phytochemicals such as flavonoids (plant pigment) cause different modes of action or enhance existing effects. This is called the entourage effect. Thus, for example, THC only has a pain-relieving effect in connection with special terpenes.
Because, just like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to various receptors (CB2, GABA, serotonin, etc.) in the human body. They influence the flow properties of certain membranes, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and the skin barrier. The THC absorption in the brain improves because of these changed flow properties. This explains the pain-relieving and mind-altering properties of THC.
Production and Storage Methods ensure superior quality.
If the producers pay attention to the preservation of the important terpenes during the production and storage of medical cannabis, a more effective and higher quality medicine can be produced. It is important to know that terpenes evaporate at 21-28 C°. This is why harvested cannabis should only be stored in a cool (and dark) place.
This also applies to the private use of cannabis. When harvesting and storing our Fiore CBD flowers, we make sure that the valuable trichomes are preserved and the phytochemicals do not evaporate.
The various terpenes
The monoterpenes such as beta-myrcene, limonene and pinene are found in the highest concentrations in the cannabis plant. They can be found on the tips of the flowers and are used to repel insects.
Beta Myrcene is mainly found in the fresh cannabis plant and in large numbers. It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-psychotic effects. It also enhances the THC effects in the brain. If an existing strain contains more than 0.5% beta-myrcene, it will have a sedative effect. At more than 0.5%, on the other hand, invigorating
Beta-Caryophyllene can be recognized by its pungent odor and a spicy and woody aroma. This terpene can also be found in black pepper, cloves, cumin, and cinnamon. It has great therapeutic potential and is increasingly used for stomach diseases, inflammatory skin diseases and to improve the musculoskeletal system.
Lemonene is also found in high levels in fresh cannabis plants, but also in various citrus fruits. Lemonene has antibacterial, anticancer, antidepressant, antifungal and anxiolytic effects. It also lowers stress hormone levels and has a stimulating effect on the immune system.
Pinene is the terpene most abundant in our diverse plant world, reminiscent of conifers and the smell of the forest. It brings with it many good and useful qualities. On the one hand, it has a relaxing effect on the muscles of the bronchi and improves the absorption of other active ingredients. Pine is known to improve concentration, have an energizing effect and can improve memory. In addition, it has an antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effect. It is therefore very healthy to take regular walks in the forest and breathe in the healthy substances.
Linalool provides the typical smell of the lavender plant. It has a calming and sleep-inducing effect. Therefore, cannabis varieties with a high linalool content are recommended for problems falling asleep or staying asleep and for inner restlessness. Furthermore, linalool also has anti-cancer, antispasmodic, pain-relieving and anxiolytic properties.
Mosquitoes and moths don’t like the scent of this terpene at all, so it can be used to repel these insects, which is what the cannabis plant does.
These are the main terpenes found in the cannabis plant. The number and types that each plant species produces are genetically predetermined. However, the concentration depends on the sunlight and the fertility of the soil.
That’s why at Fiore Doro we grow cannabis with the best means that nature has to offer. With the precious sun of Italy and fertile soil.
Quelle: Tammy Sweet: Ganzheitliche Heilung mit Cannabis, 1. Auflage. Herba Press 2021,
Linkquellen: Cannabibliothek, https://www.cbd-vital.de/magazin/cbd-allgemein/was-ist-der-entourage-effekt